Learning How to Think Logically- Unit 1

Section 1

Learning How to Think Logically

A Study of the Role of Perception

new perception graphic

 

Logic is used to understand what has been perceived. To proceed ‘logically’, we must first get a firm grasp on how it is that we perceive. Without an awareness of what are our tools of perception, how they work individually, and how they work in combination; we would not be able to interpret the input information we receive from them.

The first Unit study will consider:

What is Perception?

Answer: The acquisition of information from some form of sensory input.

Our means to perceive things include more than our five external senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. There are internal senses that give us sensations (sensory input) that shape our perception of what is going on inside our body where the five commonly thought of senses cannot give us input information about.  Most of these internal senses are associated with the nervous system.

These senses can be employed either singularly or in combination with others senses, bringing to our attention the information we need to process in order to formulate an appropriate response to the stimuli we receive. These senses bring the necessary information we need to determine response and to problem solve. All understanding begins at the data acquisition stage.

The Data Acquisition Phase

Perception not only has to do with deciphering sensory input information; but also has to do with the overall output at the end of all of that deciphering. Clear perception based on reasonable and logical methods of interpreting that information will leave the person at the point of ‘OUTPUT’, having had weighed all key factors involved in the decision making process appropriately and examined the correlational effect the key factors have on one another. A person is able to see the effects of his decision on other people and other things. Having done so, they will have what is necessary to make the decision knowing both the advantages as well as the negative alternative cost resulting from a particular choice. After, follows response.

regret-worry vingette

It would be wrong to consider all ‘problems’ to be synonymous with ‘trouble’. Many problems that need to be solved in daily life have nothing at all to do with some painful encounter or process. People solve problems in going about their work, or how to get to work, or what they should work for. A home gardener wants to rearrange her garden and has to figure out were she can best place her tomatoes to get the best sunlight. A child’s baseball bat has a crack in it and so he figures out a way to keep it together so that he can continue to play with it. All of these are examples of generally mundane and inconsequential problem solving encounters. Life is largely problem solving. And yet there are those problems that seem unsolvable or that remain unsolved that ultimately bring internal angst and do indeed create serious trouble.

It is said,”A picture is worth a thousand words”. Our senses set before us a mosaic full of information. Like a picture, the more you employ your faculties of sensory interpretation, the more apt you are to see a clearer picture of any reality. Perception is information gathering and once that input has been received, we can begin to examine it and designate it’s proper informational value(sifting for what is important or not, collating, prioritizing, etc). Simply, we can now begin to analyze the information.

flow-chart-of-a-structured-troubleshooting-approach

Above is a representative flow chart showing the decision making process. What is absent is the key components that starts the progression through the logical thought process. One is the necessary valid input information to evaluate. The second is some reference standard by which to measure the accuracy of the what is under examination.

The keener your perception, the more reliable the input information is for the cognitive/thought process. So it seems quite clear that the more you employ your faculties of sensory interpretation, the more apt you are to see a clearer picture of any reality.

Perception can be defined as our recognition and interpretation of sensory information.

Perception also includes how we respond to the information. We can think of perception as a process where we take in sensory information from our environment and use that information in order to interact with our environment. Perception allows us to take the sensory information in and make it into something meaningful. There is a bidirectional effect here because the more we interpret correctly as a result of correct recognition, it reinforces the pattern of recognition making it more firm.

Pattern Recognition

This is also true of the Holy Scriptures. Holy Scripture is a Book of patterns. They expose clearly God’s pattern and His pattern of conduct. It also discloses very clearly the pattern of his archenemy, the one called devil, and his pattern of ungodly conduct. It contains a pattern of interpretation whereby we can come to understand accurately the nature of God’s Divine Order. The only way to get a full understanding of the Bible is to grasp and understand the patterns it contains.

Being able to identify distinct patterns is a part of the perceptive process and is associated with memory, which will be considered later.

Let’s look at one example of a Biblical pattern that has been overlooked. Following is a brief article explaining an important pattern written in Holy Scripture that specifically answers the many questions about Jesus son of God, his role in God’s arrangement, and clearly disproves the trinitarian concept of Christ Jesus being a coequal sovereign with his Father, God Almighty. This Biblical pattern shows us that the ‘Godhead’ concept FAILS to fit the pattern we have been given because it does not agree with the only reference standard by which to measure the accuracy of the what is under examination, the Bible.

While reading, attempt to employ your powers of reason and your existing knowledge of the context of Holy Scripture.

Temple Floor plan white arrowwithtitle

The Divine Nature of the Son and his Role in God’s Arrangement

The Divine nature of our lord Jesus the Christ is no mystery.

We must remember that Jesus is the “begotten” Son of God Almighty; the One and Only.

What does begotten mean?

He was not ‘fashioned’ as the other creations (by external power). But taken of God Himself; if you will, of the “stuff of God” (like our children are of our “stuff” or body). He is of Divine nature and uniquely so.

What is important is what Holy Scripture says and the thoughts they are conveying.

The preponderance of Scripture clearly shows Christ Jesus is not part of some ‘Godhead’ relationship.

Concerning his pre-human existence, Philippians 2:6 states,

“Who existing in the form of God, counted not the being an equality with God a thing to be grasped”. American Standard Version”

”Though he was in the form of God, he did not regard equality with God something to be possessed by force”. Complete Jewish Bible

Lord Jesus was hated and crucified, not for saying that he was God or a ‘god’. But rather that he was the “SON of God“. (See Matthew 4:6 as well as Luke 4:6 for examples)

Jesus Christ at no time referred to himself as “God” or a “god”.

At the time of Jesus’ baptism, Matthew 3:17 tells us,

“And behold a voice from Heaven said, ‘This is my beloved SON, with whom I am well pleased”. English Standard Version

Further, in the Book of Hebrews in chapter 1 and verse 5, this question is put forth:

“For to which one of the angels did God say, “You are my SON, today I have become your Father?” Or again, “I will be his Father, and he will be my SON”?
New International Version

One would have to do some mental and verbal gymnastics to explain away the obvious connotation of these Scriptures.

Those who have been indoctrinated with the trinity ‘Godhead’ teaching can’t accept that this teaching flies in the face of both Scripture and reason.

It should be clear from reading Colossians 1:5, what relationship Lord Jesus Christ has with his father Almighty God.

“The SON is the image of the invisible God, the FIRSTBORN over all creation”. NIV

The Father/Son relationship and the ‘GodHead’ model simply do not align.

To understand the Divine order in Heaven, we have been given a pattern. It was the Temple; it’s design, and the Temple order.

Hebrews 8:5New International Version (NIV)

5 They serve at a sanctuary that is a copy and shadow of what is in heaven. This is why Moses was warned when he was about to build the tabernacle: “See to it that you make everything according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.”

The model of those who promote and teach the ‘GodHead’ belief is not in harmony with what the Temple setup looked like.

Compare

The entrance was a single pathway that ended with the Most Holy compartment. The Most Holy was exclusively the residing place of God by his Spirit.

The resurrected Jesus Christ is the High Priest (in the order Melchizedek). He is the anointed King of God’s kingdom as well.

The High Priest officiates before God Almighty. His office is therefore beneath the Father as he serves according to God’s requirements.

He does not reside in the Most Holy; but rather, has the permission to enter it.
The pattern of temple is a serially (linearly) constructed arrangement with Almighty God alone at it’s head. It also show’s Lord Jesus’ position in the Divine order. Imagine what you already understand.

There is but One at it’s Superior position. It is an exclusive position not shared.

The God-Head belief and teaching do not agree with the pattern God gave us in order that we may understand what is established in Heaven.

Once again recall the words of Scripture:

Hebrews 8:5 New International Version (NIV)

5 They serve at a sanctuary that is a copy and shadow of what is in heaven. This is why Moses was warned when he was about to build the tabernacle: “See to it that you make everything according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.”

I am quoting the Holy Scriptures as I refer to the time when Lord Jesus Christ will have completely carried out his consecrated commission in his Father’s name, “Then he will subject himself to He who subjected all things unto to him”. In this way all creation that belongs to God  will return unto God.”

He is the unique shoot of God who was predestined to be grafted into the rest of creation in order to purify and purge it from corruption.

The only begotten Son of God is unique in all facets of his existence and has been since his begetting.

He is unique like his Father to whom he is subordinate. And his roles as Firstborn and High Priest are exclusive, setting him apart from all other creations by God.

R.Weathers

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Accurate perception is necessary in order to recognize distinct details. It takes focus to recognize patterns. We focus on whatever details will answer the question or problem set before us. In the example above, the central question is: Is ‘Almighty God’ and ‘Jesus Christ’ the same person? Is God the Father and His son Jesus Christ co-equal Gods? 

(The Section entitled, “Mentally Connecting to Bible Truths”, Unit two, confronts a singular Scriptural misinterpretation that has led many to a false assumption and false conclusion about the nature of the Son of God.

https://tutored2learn.wordpress.com/mentally-conn/logic-and-the-mind-of-%D7%99%D7%94%D7%95%D7%94-god/john-11-a-prime-example-of-ignoranceconfusion-caused-by-bible-revisionism/

What led to false conclusions as to what the true meaning of John 1:1 is? It was and still is the failure to compare that singular scripture to the rest of the Bible’s contextual information about the nature, identity, and role of the Son of God.

So an examiner of the only source that has the answer, written Holy Scripture, will focus their powers of perception on information relevant to that question. They would not focus on say, the history of the nation of Israel while in Babylonian captivity. Not that is not an important Bible topic; but that it has no relevant value in answering THIS specific question. 

Such a ‘parsing’  and ‘sorting’ process begins after one has the proper information/data to perform an analysis of what is in question. There is nothing more reliable than God’s written Word on the subject of Jesus Christ. It represents a test rod by which we can compare all teachings regarding true discipleship toward Christ is and what is a truly Godly spiritual life.  It is the pure test rod to determine if one’s conduct measures up to God’s approval.

So, once again, after gathering information, a person needs an accurate standard to measure it by. We make this comparison based on immediate information we can retrieve; but we mainly make this comparison based on what we already know stored in our memories.

The next portion of this unit focuses on memory‘s role in logical decision-making.

Memory and Perception

Memory plays a key role in perception.  There must be ‘something’ to make a comparison with in order to identify what something must be.  Memory serves this purpose as we measure what we perceive with what we have  already come to know or understand.

Examine the chart below:

Information ProcessingLarge

For example, let’s look at our perception of words. Each letter of the alphabet is in itself a singular letter. When we perceive words, we think of them as one singular unit that is made up of smaller parts called letters. It is through this organization of letters into words that we are able to make something meaningful. That is, we perceive an entire word, and this word has a specific meaning that can be found in the dictionary.  The dictionary provides a standard and a  point of refernece.  All of this mental activity relies heavily on memorization.  After letters and words have been committed to memory, then we are able to recognize them in usage and use them ourselves.

Perception is necessary for us to survive in our environment. For example, before parents feed their babies food cooked in a microwave oven, they taste it in order to make sure that the temperature isn’t too hot. This involves using sensory information (touch and taste) to make sure that the food is not dangerous for the infant.

eye illustartion1

Before we cross a busy street, we rely on our hearing and sight to make sure a car is not coming. Without the sensory information, we would not be able to judge which food was too hot or when an appropriate time to cross the street would be, which could put us, our children, and others in danger.

The following video offers a deeper consider of the effect memory has on learning.

Clearly memory is key to perception as it contains all of the reference ‘material’ we use as a standard to compare the reality that we presently are confronted with; as we attempt to compare that to what we already know to be true or real.

cognitive processes at work right to left

Perception forms the basis for what is known as ‘Cognition’. Cognition is a term referring to the Cognitive Processes (mental processes) involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension. These processes include thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. These are higher-level functions of the brain and encompass language, imagination, perception, and planning. The study of the Cognitive Process in the human brain is a practicum of and in itself within the study of the human brain function.

These “higher level functions follow a process that has a logical, mathematical procession from beginning (acquisition) to output (decision) to doing (implementation).  Or an “A” to “B” to “C’…..progression.  So using a logical progression of thought, one would not skip “A” and “B” going straight to “C”.

The Importance of ‘Focus’ and a ‘Focal Point’

Staying-Focused

Below is the common definition of ‘focus’Oxford English Dictionary:

Definition of focus in English:

noun (plural focuses or fociˈfōˌsī-ˌkī)

The center of interest or activity:
“this generation has made the environment a focus of attention”

Focus involves the ability to narrow one’s field of visual attention to a specific field or specific fields of interest. The limousine driver sent to pick up a client must ignore some sensory information in order to focus his attention on ‘clues’ that associate who and what he is looking at to who or what he is actually looking for. He would overlook certain sights, sounds, smells. etc.

Here is a practice example to reinforce the point being made about focusing on what is relevant and important:

cartoon coffeemaker

Abe has owned a small retail business since 1969 in Lower Sonoma Valley. He sells can openers for 10 dollars after discounting them by 12%. A customer pays 50 dollars for a coffee maker after a discount of 20 dollars. His store is only 12 years old and he got it at a steal for $150,000.

Question:

What is the original price of the coffee maker?

“A customer pays 50 dollars for a coffee maker after a discount of 20 dollars.”  That is the only information in this story-problem that has any significance in solving for the answer to the question before us. Fifty dollars plus twenty dollar means that the coffee maker’s original price was $70.00.

It requires mental focus to strain/separate the information necessary for solving the problem from the information contained in the story problem which has no value in the solution that is being sought.

What if you were in a sprawling metropolitan city that you were unfamiliar with except for a few landmarks to go by. You would have to mentally disregard all the things that would distract you from looking for those all important landmarks you need. That would include sights, sounds, smells, glaring sunlight: anything thing that would take your focus off of your objective. You would keep your focal point on those landmarks.

We live in a ‘spiritual’ sprawling metropolis that is earth wide. It is “Babylon the Great”, the devil’s world empire. God has given us ‘landmarks’ in His word the Bible to follow while we journey through this world of useless, distracting, and confusing input information. Most of it has purposefully been placed there in a deliberate attempt to confuse and mislead you. It takes spiritual and therefore mental focus in order to have good perception of the realities and dangers that surround us in Babylon while we wait for release at the Lord’s Coming.

 

Understanding by means of Comparison

The cognitive processes are the mental tools we use as a Comparator or something by which to determine the validity of a thing, whether it is true or false.

Often analogies are useful in helping to get a fuller sense of something. Let’s make a comparison.

Your home computer is a good example of the use of this cognitive function. Please observe the graphic below:

computercomparatorgraphicInstall

It, your computer, functions by making millions of comparisons.

 

Artificial Intelligence is the field of study which studies how to create computers and computer and computer software that are capable of intelligent behavior. A.I. seeks to mimic human intelligence by recreating the cognitive process with hardware and control commands. The concept is the same. It is to initiate valid commands, process input information accurately, and end up with valid results.

The subject of how logic and artificial intelligence relate to one another will be extensively covered in the following unit, “What exactly is ‘Logic’?”

Summary

In summary, critical to accurate understanding is accurate perception. We must hone and use all of these perceptive faculties we have at our disposal. If lacking in one, we must make more use of the ones we do have mastery over, while building up the ones we are lacking in. A person who is sightless or deaf can lead a full life relying on her or his other senses. In fact, many have sharpened their other senses even more keenly than those who have vision or hearing.

Key point of unit: It is important to understand that it is only by focusing our perceptive powers, that we can  think clearly and logically. It is the only way to get an accurate interpretation of sensory input information.

On to Unit 2

Information Processing

What exactly is ‘Logic’?

male female on black mat

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